Roman Empire
Some of the more obscure usurpers that also issued coins

Clodius Macer (Lucius Clodius Macer) 68 A.D.

Clodius Macer was the propraetor in Africa under Nero. As Nero's power waned, Macer threatened to cut off the grain supplies of to Rome, in an attempt to increase his own power. He decided not to support Galba's power-play after Nero's suicide in June 68 A.D. and instead minted his own coins. He raised a new legion named Legio Macriana Libertrix, but by October was defeated by Galba and executed.

Pacatian (Ti. Claudius Marinus Pacatianus) circa 248 A.D.
This usurper took power briefly in Upper Moesia and issued coins from the mint of Viminacium. He was murdered by his own troops.

Jotapian (M. Fulvius Rufus Iotapianus) circa 248 A.D.
Due to the oppressive administration in Syria of Priscus, the brother of Philip I, the army elevated one Jotapian, who claimed descent from Alexander the Great. After briefly ruling Syria and Cappadocia, the usurper was killed by his own soldiers.
Silbannacus (Marcus Silbannacus) circa 249 A.D.
This usurper is known only by one unique coin in the British Museum.

Uranius Antoninus (J. Julius Aurelius Sulpicius Uranius Antoninus) circa 253 - 254 A.D.
Little is known about this usurper who minted coins at Emesa, in Syria, for about a year.

Regalianus (P. Caius Regalianus) circa 260 A.D.
Regalianus was governor of Upper Pannonia after Valerian's capture by the Persians. He was murdered by his own soldiers after a short reign. He came from Dacia and was said to be a descendant of Decebalus, the famous king of Dacia who was defeated by Trajan. His wife was probably Sulpicia Dryantilla, who had coins issued in her name.

Domitianus circa 268 A.D.
Until 2003 this usurper was known only from a single Gallic style coin, found in France. He may have been the general that vanquished Macrianus in 261 A.D. His bid for power may have occurred on the death of Postumus, in competition with Victorinus. In 2003 a second coin was found in Oxfordshire, England.

Zenobia (Septimia Zenobia) 267 - 270 A.D.
Zenobia was the second wife of Odenathus, ruler of Palmyra, in the Syrian desert. She took over the government when her husband was assassinated in 267 A.D. She defeated an attempt by Gallienus to recover his eastern provinces and in the reign of Claudius II extended her empire to include Egypt and part of Asia Minor. She was defeated by Aurelian, who brought her to Rome to take part in his triumph. She was later given a villa near Tibur, where she spent the rest of her days. Her son, Vabalathus was joint ruler with her and continued to rule Palmyra for a while after her downfall.

Bonosus 280 A.D.
Bonosus was of British descent and a general under Probus. Due to his lack of military success against the Germans, he assumed the purple at Cologne in 280 A.D., out of fear of Probus's anger. He was defeated after a severe struggle.

Saturninus (Sextus Julius Saturninus) circa 280 A.D.
Saturninus was a general of Probus who was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Alexandria in 280 A.D. He was killed soon afterwards.

Amandus (Gnaeus Silvius Amandus) 285 A.D. - 286 A.D.
Amandus, along with Quintus Valens Aelianus, were leaders of a revolt by the Bagaudae, oppressed peasants in Gaul. It took two years for Maximianus and his general, Carausius, to defeat them. They were defeated and slain c. 286, on the Marne.

Domitius Domitianus (L. Domitius Domitianus) 296 - 297 A.D.
Domitianus led a revolt in Egypt in June/July 296 or 297. Diocletian went to Egypt to quell the rebellion. He achieved this by March 298, Domitianus having died in December 297.

Alexander (L. Domitius Alexander) 308 A.D. - 309 A.D.
Alexander was of either of Phrygian or Pannonian extraction, and was governor of Africa. In the spring or autumn of 308 Maxentius, testing the loyalty of the troops in Africa, demanded that the Alexander send his son as a hostage to him. Alexander would not comply and was acclaimed Augustus by his troops. The revolt was of short duration and probably ended by late 309.

Valens (Aurelius Valerius Valens) 314 (or 316) A.D.
When Constantine I launched an attack against Licinius I near Sirmium in October 314 (or 316), Licinius was defeated. Licinius rejoined his main army at Hadrianopolis, declared that Constantine had been deposed and appointed his own frontier commander (dux), Aurelius Valerius Valens, as joint Augustus. After a second battle, Licinius sent a peace deputation. Constantine agreed to peace, but one of his conditions was that Valens was removed as Augustus. Licinius accepted and executed Valens for good measure.

Martinian (Marcus Martinianus) 324 A.D.
On 3rd July 324, in the second war between Constantine I and Licinius I, a big battle took place at Hadrianopolis, which Licinius lost. Licinius managed a retreat to Byzantium, where he declared Constantine the loser and appointed his own Master of Offices, Martinian, Caesar and then Augustus. Licinius then lost a second battle at Chrysopolis. After the intervention of his wife Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, Licinius surrendered and was interned at Thessalonica, while Martinian was put under house arrest in Cappadocia. However, they were both then executed, probably in the spring of 325.

Nepotian (Flavius Julius Popilius Nepotianus Constantinus) 350 A.D.
Nepotian was a nephew of Constantine I. He seized power in Rome following the death of Constans. After a reign of 28 days he was taken by soldiers of Magnentius and killed.

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