Successors of Alexander - Seleucid, Ptolemaic and Pontine dynasties
List of Emperors and Usurpers

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The greatest of the successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great, the Seleucid state was created by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander's generals, in 312 BC and lasted until 64 BC when the remains of the Kingdom fell to the Romans. At its height the empire included Syria, southern Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Iran and part of central Asia.

Seleucid Dynasty -Kings

     SELEUCUS I NICATOR Ruler Oct 312-305 BC; King from 305 BC; sole ruler 305-September 292; co-ruler 292-September 280 BC
    assassinated, born c. 256 BC. One of Alexander the Great's generals he gained Babylonia for himself after the King's death.
    Conquering Iran and then Syria from Antigonus he established an empire.

     ANTIOCHUS I SOTER co-ruler 292-280 BC; sole ruler September 280-261 BC assassinated, elder son of Seleucus I,
    born 324 BC.

     ANTIOCHUS II THEOS 261-246 BC, second son of Antiochus I, born c. 287 BC. He deified himself, hence the name Theos.

     SELEUCUS II CALLINICUS 246-225 BC, eldest son of Antiochus II.

     SELEUCUS III SOTER 225-223 BC assassinated, elder son of Seleucus II.

     ANTIOCHUS III ('The Great') 223-187 BC, younger son of Seleucus II, born 242 BC. An able reformer and administrator he
    fought the Roman advances in Asia Minor but he was defeated at Magnesia (190 BC), when he lost Anatolia.

     SELEUCUS IV PHILOPATOR 187-175 BC assassinated, son of Antiochus III, born c. 217 BC. (HELIODORUS, a non-Seleucid,
    briefly usurped the throne in 175 BC; fate uncertain.)

     ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPHANES 175-163 BC, son of Antiochus III, born c. 215 BC. A competent and popular King, he is
    remembered for his sacrilege of installing a statue of Zeus in the Temple at Jerusalem which led to the revolt of the Maccabees.

     ANTIOCHUS V EUPATOR 163-162 BC assassinated, son of Antiochus IV, born 173 BC. His short reign saw the loss of most of
    the eastern provinces confining the Kingdom to Syria. Palestine and Babylonia.

     DEMETRIUS I SOTER 162-150 BC killed by Alexander Balas; son of Seleucus IV, born c. 187 BC.

     ALEXANDER BALAS 150-145 BC died in battle against Demetrius II; claimed to be son of Antiochus IV.

     ANTIOCHUS VI EPIPHANES DIONYSIUS co-ruler 145-142 BC killed?, son of Alexander Balas.

     DEMETRIUS II NICATOR co-ruler 145-142 BC; sole ruler 142-139 BC when he was taken captive by the Parthians,
    eldest son of Demetrius I.

     ANTIOCHUS VII SIDETES 139-129 BC when he died in battle against the Parthians, brother of Demetrius II. .

DEMETRIUS II NICATOR 129-125 BC assassinated.

     (ALEXANDER II ZABINAS, a usurper, claimed to be King 128-123 BC.)

     SELEUCUS V 125 BC, elder son of Demetrius II. CLEOPATRA THEA (Queen) co-ruler 125-121 BC, widow of Demetrius II.

ANTIOCHUS VIII PHILOMETOR (or GRYPOS) co-ruler 125-121 BC; sole ruler 121-96 BC, younger son of Demetrius II.

    (ANTIOCHUS IX CYZICENUS Pretender 115-95 BC.)

     SELEUCUS VI EPIPHANES NICATOR 96-95 BC, eldest son of Antiochus VIII.

     ANTIOCHUS X EUSEBES PHILOPATOR 95-83 BC, son of Antiochus IX. In the civil wars between him and the sons of
    Antiochus VIII the Seleucid state was reduced to a small area of Syria.

     DEMETRIUS III EUKAIROS PHILOPATOR SOTER 95-88 BC, fourth son of Antiochus VIII.


     PHILIPPUS I EPIPHANES PHILADELPHUS 92-83 BC, third son of Antiochus VIII.

     ANTIOCHUS XII DIONYSUS 87-84 BC, fifth son of Antiochus VIII.

Armenian Dynasty

     TIGRANES 83-69 BC, King of Armenia.

Seleucid Dynasty

     ANTIOCHUS XIII (Asiaticus) 69-64 BC, son of Antiochus X.

     PHILIPPUS II 65-64 BC when the Kingdom fell to Rome, son of Philippus I; died after 56 BC.


In 333 BC Alexander the Great conquered Egypt adding it to his empire. Following his death Egypt was ruled by a Satrap (Governor) who eventually declared himself King.

There is more than one numbering system of the Ptolemaic Kings.

     PTOLEMY I SOTER 305-282 BC, born c. 360 BC. After the death of Alexander (323 BC), Ptolemy defeated Antigonos to
    become Satrap of Egypt. Self-proclaimed King, he was an astute ruler who embellished the new capital, Alexandria,
    where he founded the famous library.

PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS 284-246 BC, son of Ptolemy I, born c. 309 BC.

     ARSINOE (Queen) 282?-270 BC, wife and sister of Ptolemy II, born c. 3l6 BC.

     PTOLEMY III EUERGETES I 246-221 BC, son of Ptolemy II, born c. 280 BC.

     PTOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR 222-205 BC, eldest son of Ptolemy III, born 245 BC.

     PTOLEMY V EPIPHANES 205-180 BC, son of Ptolemy IV, born c. 210 BC.

     PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR 180-145 BC, elder son of Ptolemy V, born c. 186 BC.

     CLEOPATRA I (Queen) 180-176 BC, widow of Ptolemy V. It is uncertain if she ruled as Regent or Sovereign in her own right.

     CLEOPATRA II (Queen) c. 175-c118 BC; c. 130-118 BC Sovereign in Upper Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy V
    and wife of Ptolemies VI and VII; died 116 BC.

     PTOLEMY NEOS PHILOPATOR 145 BC, son of Ptolemy VI. Included in some lists as Ptolemy VII.

     PTOLEMY VII EUERGETES II 145-116 BC, brother of Ptolemy VI, born c. 190 BC.

     PTOLEMY VIII EUPATOR 145 BC, son of Ptolemy VI.

     PTOLEMY IX APION King in Cyrenaica 117-90 BC, half-brother of Ptolemies VI and VII or son of Ptolemy VII.
    Excluded from some lists.

     CLEOPATRA III (Queen) 116-101 BC, daughter of Ptolemy VI and widow of Ptolemy VII.

     PTOLEMY X SOTER II 116-110 BC deposed, elder son of Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VII. Contested the throne with his brother.

     PTOLEMY XI ALEXANDER I 110-109 BC deposed, brother of Ptolemy X.
    Deposed for desecrating the tomb of Alexander the Great.

     PTOLEMY X SOTER II 109-107 BC deposed.

     PTOLEMY XI ALEXANDER I 107-88 BC deposed.

     CLEOPATRA IV BERENICE (Queen) 101-88 BC, sister of Ptolemies X and XI, and wife of Ptolemy X (her brother).


     PTOLEMY XII ALEXANDER II 80 BC assassinated, son of Ptolemy XI, born c. 105 BC.

     PTOLEMY XIII NEOS DIONYSOS (Auletes) 80-58 BC deposed, son of Ptolemy X. Obliged to become a 'puppet' of Rome.

     CLEOPATRA VI TRYPHAENA (Queen) ruled alternately with her sister 58-55 BC.

     BERENICE (Queen) ruled alternately with her sister 58-55 BC; Both probably daughters of Ptolemy X.


     PTOLEMY XIV 52-47 BC, elder son of Ptolemy XIII, born c. 61 BC.

     PTOLEMY XV 47-44 BC, younger son of Ptolemy XIII. born c. 59 BC.

CLEOPATRA VII 52-30 BC, daughter of Ptolemy XIII, born c. 69 BC.
    Famed for her dalliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.

     PTOLEMY XVI CAESAR (Caesarion) 44-30 BC, son of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, born 47 BC; executed by Octavius.


A Kingdom of the ancient world, Pontus occupied most of the NE of modern Turkey. After the fall of Pontus proper to the Romans the Pontine possessions in the Crimea and beside the Sea of Azov continued as the Kingdom of Bosporus.

Rulers (not independent)

     MITHRADATES c. 400-c. 363 BC.

     ARIOBARZANES c. 363-337 or 336 BC. A Persian noble who threw off the overlordship of the King of Kings.

Mithradatid Dynasty - Kings

     MITHRADATES I 337 or 336-302 or 301 BC.

     MITHRADATES II 302 or 301-266 or 265 BC.

     ARIOBARZANES 266 or 265-c. 250 BC, son of Mithradates II.

     MITHRADATES III c. 250-c. 185 BC.

     PHARNACES I c 185-c 170 BC, son of Mithradates III. An able King who established Pontus as a power and tried to overthrow the Seleucid Empire.

     MITHRADATES IV PHILOPATOR PHILADELPHUS c. 170-157 BC - and possibly co-ruler before c. 170 BC,
    brother of Pharnaces I.

     MITHRADATES V EUERGETES 157-123 BC assassinated, son of Pharnaces I.

MITHRADATES VI EUPATOR ('The Great') co-ruler 123-115 BC; sole ruler 115-72 BC when he fled;
    afterwards King of Bosporus, son of Mithradates V, born c. 132 BC; died AD 63 when he ordered a guard to kill him.
    He dominated Asia Minor, interfering in the affairs of most of his neighbours. After failing in his spirited efforts to save
    Pontus from Rome he retreated to Bosporus to reign until the revolt of his son when he had himself killed.

     MITHRADATES VII CHRESTOS co-ruler 123-after 115 BC deposed, brother of Mithradates VI; fate uncertain.

Kings of Bosporus (the Pontine state in the Crimea)

     MITHRADATES VI EUPATOR 72-63 BC. In 63 BC, Pontus proper was absorbed into the Roman Empire.

     PHARNACES II 63-47 BC died in battle, son of Mithradates VI. He was defeated in a five day war by Julius Caesar
    whose description of the campaign was 'veni, vidi, vici' - I came, I saw, I conquered.

     MITHRADATES VIII 47 BC died in battle. A usurper from Pergamum.

     ASANDER 47-39? BC. A usurping Greek general.

     DARIUS ?39-37 BC deposed; subsequent fate uncertain.