The Tetrarchy The Valentinian Emperors

Rome: The heirs of Constantine

237 to 363 A.D.

When Constantine I died on 22nd May 337 A.D. he left the Empire under the control of his three surviving sons, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, who took the title of Augusti on 9th September. Constantine's nephews, Delmatius and Hannibalianus, who had been appointed Caesar of Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece and 'King' of Armenia, respectively, were soon eliminated. The three sons divided the empire between them, the eldest, Constantine, taking Britain, Gaul and Spain, the middle brother Constans the rest of the European provinces, while Constantius ruled the east.

The sons were soon at each other's throats and in the spring of 340 Constantine II attempted to exert his authority over Constans and invaded Italy. He was defeated and killed at Aquileia, leaving Constans in control of the whole the western empire.

In January 350 Constans's throne was usurped by his army chief Magnentius. Constantius II refused to accept the new western ruler and defeated Magnentius at Mursa in the Balkans in September 351 and at Lugdunum two years later. This left the empire once again in the hands of a single emperor.

Constantius soon decided to chose a colleague to share his power. This was Flavius Julianus (Julian II), Constantius's half-cousin. Julian was a successful commander on the Rhine frontier and was popular with his troops. Because of this popularity, Constantius felt threatened and in 360 decided to reduce Julian's power. The result was that the army proclaimed Julian Augustus in the west. Constantius decided to move against Julian but died in November 361.

Although Julian was a fairly enlighten ruler, he received a bad press due to his suppression of Christianity in favour of the traditional religion of Rome. For this reason he has been dubbed Julian the Apostate. Julian was wounded and died in Mesopotamia, where he had launched an invasion in March 363.

List of Emperors
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Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
reduced Follis of Trier
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
reduced Follis of Trier
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
reduced Follis of Trier
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
Centenionalis (Radiate)of London
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
Centenionalis of Siscia
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
Centenionalis of Heraclea
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
Centenionalis of Siscia
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
reduced Centenionalis of London
Constantine II as Caesar
317-337 AD
reduced Centenionalis of Lugdunum
Constans as Augustus
337-350 AD
reduced Centenionalis of Trier
Constans as Augustus
337-350 AD
reduced Centenionalis of Trier
Constans as Augustus
337-350 AD
light Maiorina of Constantinople
Constans as Augustus
337-350 AD
Quarter Maiorina of Thessalonika
Constans as Augustus
337-350 AD
quarter Maiorina of Siscia
Constantius II as Caesar
324-337 AD
Centenionalis of Antioch
Constantius II as Caesar
324-337 AD reduced
Centenionalis of Thessalonika
Constantius II as Augustus
337-361 AD
AV Solidus of Antioch
Constantius II as Augustus
337-361 AD
AR Siliqua of Constantinople
Constantius II as Augustus
337-361 AD
heavy Maiorina of Alexandria
Constantius II as Augustus
337-361 AD
heavy Maiorina of Antioch
Constantius II as Augustus
337-361 AD
heavy Maiorina of Siscia
Magnentius
350 - 353 AD
Double Maiorina of Trier
Magnentius
350 - 353 AD
heavy Maiorina of Trier
Magnentius
350 - 353 AD
heavy Maiorina of Trier
Decentius Caesar
351 - 353 AD
Maiorina of Arles
Vetranio
350 AD
Maiorina of Siscia
Vetranio
350 AD
Half Maiorina of Siscia
Constantius Gallus
351 - 354 AD
Maiorina of Alexandria
Constantius Gallus
351 - 354 AD
reduced Maiorina of Rome
Julian II
Caes. 355-360 AD: Aug. 360-363 AD
Double Maiorina of Sirmium
Julian II
Caes. 355-360 AD: Aug. 360-363 AD
Double Maiorina of Thessalonika
Julian II
Caes. 355-360 AD: Aug. 360-363 AD
Double Maiorina of Heraclea
Julian II
Caes. 355-360 AD: Aug. 360-363 AD
Centenionalis of Heraclea
Jovian
363 - 364 AD
Centenionalis of Siscia


The Republic
The Julio-Claudian Emperors
The Flavian, Adoptive and Antonine Emperors
The Severan Emperors
The Barrack Room Emperors
The Gallic Empire
Aurelian's Monetary Reforms
The Tetrarchy, Constantine and Licinius
The heirs of Constantine
The Valentinian Emperors to the Fall
Roman Imitative Coins