Islamic Rulers
Early period/Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs

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All dates are A.D.


THE FIRST CALIPHS
Following the death of Muhammed, his successors were elected. The first four of these successors or Caliphs were known as the "Rightly-guided Caliphs".

'Abu Bakr, 632 - 634
'Umar, 634 - 644
'Uthman, 644 - 656
'Ali, 656 - 661

ARAB-SASSANIAN
After the Arab conquests, many of the governors of the farther reaches of the new empire minted coins derived from the local Sassanian coinage. The more notable types were:

Tabaristan now Mazandaran, northern Iran, 711 - 793.
Governors of Tabaristan, 784 (this example)
Eastern Sistan, now in southern Iran, 690 - 786.
Arab-Ephthalite, Bactria, now in north-western portion of Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan, 682 - 715.
Arab-Bukharan, now Uzbekistan, 775 - 813.
Arab-Armenian, c. 700, now between the Caspian and Black Seas, next to the eastern border of Turkey.

UMAYYAD CALIPHS
ruling from Damascus.

Mu'awiya I, 661 - 680.
Yazid I, 680 - 683.
Mu'awiya II, 683 - 684.
Merwan, 684 - 685.
'Abd al-Malik, 685 - 670.
al-Walid I, 705 - 715.
Sulayman, 715 - 717.
'Umar II, 717 - 720.
Yazid II, 720 - 724.
Hisham, 724 - 743.
al-Walid II, 743.
Yazid III, 743-744.
Ibrahim, 744.
Marwan II, 744-750.

ABBASID CALIPHS
ruling from Baghdad.

al-Saffah, 749 - 754.
al-Mansur, 754 - 775.
Ibrahim b. 'Abd Allah, Usurper, 762 - 763.
al-Mehidi, 775 - 785.
al-Hadi, 785 - 786
Harun al-Rashid, 786 - 809.
al-Natiq Musa, 810 - 811.
al-Amin, 809 - 813.
al-Ma'mun, 810 - 833
Abu'l-Saraya al-Shaybani, Usurper, Jan. - Sep. 815.
al-Mu'tasim, 833 - 842.
al-Wathiq, 842 - 847.
al-Mutawakkil, 847 - 861.
al-Muntasir, 861 - 862.
al-Musta'in 862 - 866.
al-Mu'tazz, 866 - 869.
al-Muhtadi, 869 - 870.
al-Mu'tamid, 870 - 892.
al-Muwaffaq, heir to throne 875 - 892.
al-Mu'tadid, 892 - 902.
al-Muktafi, 902-908.
al-Muqtadir, 908 - 932.
al-Qahir, 932-934.
al-Radi, 934 - 940.
al-Muttaqi, 940 - 944.
al-Mustakfi, 944 - 946.
al-Muti', 946 - 974.
al-Muqtadi, 1075 - 1094.
al-Mustazhir, 1094 - 1118.
al-Mustanjid, 1160 - 1170.
al-Mustadi, 1170 - 1180.
al-Nasir, 1180 - 1225.
al-Zahir, 1225 - 1226
al-Mustansir, 1226 - 1242.
al-Musta'sim, 1242 - 1258.

In 1258 the Mongols overran Baghdad, killing the Caliph.


Early period/Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs
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