Islamic Rulers and Dynasties

Following the rapid Arab expansion in the late 7th century, the Muslim world was presided over by a Caliph. The Caliph was simply a successor to the Prophet, not a king or an emperor. None the less the Caliphs were de facto rulers. The territory being ruled over was vast, and as time went by, local rulers arose and disappeared, as well as rival claimants to the Caliphate. To western eyes, the whole period seems terribly confusing and chaotic. However, the European medieval period is probably just as confusing, with it's kings, dukes, counts and Popes. The pages below are an attempt to list all the rulers in the early period, and all major and minor dynasties that followed. The order mainly follows the listings in Stephen Album's "A Checklist of Islamic Coins". The dates given for each ruler or dynasty are the dates when coins were issued, unless more accurate information is known. An attempt has been made to show the geographic areas ruled over in terms of modern place names.

Early period/Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs
North Africa
Egypt and Syria
Arabian Peninsular
Iran - early period
Iran under Seljuks
Seljuks of Rum
The Mongols and after
Ottoman Empire