India and South Asia

320 B.C to 1605 A.D.

Civilisation in the Indian sub-continent is many millennia old, but it's first appearance on the world stage was the incursion of Alexander the Great 326 BC. Although he didn't stay, the Greek influence did.

The first coin-issuing empire was that of the Mauryans (320 - 200 BC), the most famous ruler being Ashoka (272 - 232 BC).

Today, Afghanistan is not considered part of India, but in ancient times it was not only a route into India, but often the centre of empires which stretched from central Asia right down into India. Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian kingdoms were based there and in northern India. Likewise, the Kushans (c. 1 - 380 AD) started off there.

Between 300 to 500 AD, the Guptas were the dominant empire. After that, various states came and went.

Arab expansion in the 7th Century AD, brought them as far as present-day Afghanistan and Sind in the extreme north-west of the Indian sub-continent. In 962 a new Muslim dynasty was founded at Ghazna in Afghanistan. The most famous ruler, Mahmud I (999 - 1030), ruled a vast empire including most of Iran and north-west India. He also made yearly raids deep into India, mainly for booty. In 1150, 'Ala'-ud-Din Husayn of Ghur, in central Afghanistan, sacked Ghazna and drove out the Ghaznavid dynasty. His nephew, Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad, known as Muhammad of Ghur, invaded India in 1175. After his death in 1206, his general, Qutb-ud-Din Aybak, became the sultan of Delhi. Several separate Islamic states followed. In 1526, Babar founded the Mughal empire, incorporating all the Islamic states of India.

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Mauryan Empire
c. 320 BC - 270 BC AR
Punch-marked silver. Ser. V
Mauryan Empire; Ashoka (time of)
272 - 232 BC
AR Karshapana
Indo-Greek - Bactria; Eukratides
171 BC - 135 BC
AR Drachm
Indo-Greek - Bactria; Menander
160 BC - 145 BC
AR Drachm
Indo-Greek; Bactria; Hermaeus
40 - 1 BC
AR Drachm
Indo-Scythian; Aziles
65-45 BC
AR Drachm
Indo-Scythian; Azes II
35 BC - 5 BC
AR Drachm
Indo-Parthians; Gondophares Sases
20-55 AD
Billon Tetradrachm
Khushans; Soter Megas
55 -105 AD
AR Tetradrachm
Khushans; Vima Kadphises
55 -105 AD
AE Pana
Western Satraps -Viradaman
234-239 A.D.
AR Drachm
Khushano-Sassanian; Peroz I
245-270 AD
AE Pana
Gupta Dynasty Kumargupta I
414 AD - 455 AD
AR Drachm
White Huns (Hephthalites)
475 AD - 575 AD
Billon Drachm
Ghaznavids
Mahmud I
390 - 422 AH (999 - 1030 AD)
Ghaznavids
Mahmud I
390 - 422 AH (999 - 1030 AD)
Delhi Rajas; Chahada Deva
1172-1191 AD
AR Jittal
India - Delhi: Muhammad II
1296 - 1315
AR Tanka
India - Malwa: Mahmud II
1511 - 1531
AR Half Tanka
India - Bengal: Nusrat
1518 - 1532
AR Tanka
India - Gujarat: Muhammad III
1537 - 1554
AR Tanka
India - Suri: Islam Shah
1545 - 1554
AR Rupee "1477" type
India - Moghul Empire: Babar
1526-1530
AR Tanka
India - Moghul Empire: Humayun
1530-1546
AR Mitqal
India - Moghul Empire: Akbar
1556 - 1605
AR Rupee
India - Moghul Empire: Jahangir
1605 - 1628
AR Rupee
India - Moghul Empire: Shah Jahan
1628 - 1658
AR Rupee
India - Moghul Empire: Aurangzeb
1658 - 1707
AR Rupee
India - Moghul Empire:
Shah Alam Bahadur I
AR Rupee 1707 - 1712