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Roman Empire

Ruler: Maximinus II Eastern Augustus
Reigned: Caesar 305-310 AD: Filius Augustorum 309-310 AD: Aug. 310-313 AD
Denomination: Billon Follis
Mint: London
Date of Issue: 310-12 AD
Obverse: Laureate and cuirassed bust right. "IMP. MAXIMINVS P. AVG."
Reverse: Genius standing left, head towered, loins draped, in right hand patera, in left cornucopiae. "GENIO POP. ROM."[1]
Mint marks:
Reference: RIC VI 211, RCVM 14856
Weight: 4.7 gms
Nominal Weight: 4.6 - 5.4 gms
Diameter: 22.6 mm
Comment: [1] = "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" = Guardian of the Roman people

MAXIMINUS II (Galerius Valerius Maximinus) (Maximinus Daia)

  • Galerius Valerius Maximinus was born 20th November 270, in Illyricum.
  • On 1st March 293, Diocletian adopted Galerius as son and Caesar, while Maximian did the same for his praetorian commander Julius Constantius.
  • By 304, Diocletian was in poor health and decided to abdicate. He persuaded Maximian to do so as well, and on 1st May 305, they did so. Constantius and Galerius became the new senior emperors, while Maximinus Daia and Severus took their places as Caesars.
  • When Constantius died at York on 25th July 306, his army proclaimed his son, Constantine, "Augustus", and senior emperor in the west in succession to his father. When Galerius heard this, he sent back a purple robe as recognition of Constantine as Caesar, not Augustus. He promoted Severus the rank of Augustus instead.
  • Maxentius, son of Maximian, was disappointed in being passed over, and proclaimed himself emperor at Rome on 28th October 306.
  • Galerius ordered Severus to get rid of Maxentius, but Severus failed and was killed on 16 September 307.
  • Diocletian was briefly brought out of retirement in November 308 for an imperial conference at Carnuntum near Vienna. The result was a new tetrarchy. Licinius, another Illyrian army officer and friend of Galerius, was appointed Augustus in the west, in place of Severus. Constantine and Maximinus were given the title of filius Augusti, Maxentius was declared a public enemy and Maximian, whom Maxentius had created co-ruler, was forced to resign. Under pressure from Constantine and Maximinus, Galerius promoted them to full Augustii, early in 309.
  • On 30th April 311, Galerius died.
  • Maximinus now fought with Licinius for control of the east. He also continued his predecessors anti-Christian policy.
  • On 28th October 312, Constantine defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.
  • In 313, Licinius allied himself to Constantine by marrying his half-sister Constantia. Licinius and Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which granted religious toleration.
  • Maximinus crossed the Bosphorus into Europe to confront Licinius.
  • On 30th April 313 they joined in battle on the plain of the River Ergenus, near Hadrianopolis. Licinius won against superior odds.
  • Maximinus left the battlefield disguised as a slave and fled east.
  • Licinius's troops caught up with him at Tarsus which they put under seige.
  • Maximinus took poison, which unfortunately was a slow acting one. He took four days to die.

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