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Roman Empire

Ruler: Probus
Reigned: 276 - 282 AD
Denomination: AE Antoninianus/Aurelianus
Mint: Rome
Date of Issue: 280-281 AD
Obverse: Radiate, cuirassed bust right "PROBVS P.F. AVG."
Reverse: Fides standing left holding two ensigns. "FIDES MILITVM"
Mint marks:
   
R (thunderbolt) ε
Reference: RIC V.2 170
Weight: 4.2 gms
Diameter: 22.9 mm

PROBUS (M. Aurelius Probus)

  • Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander on the eastern frontier, was declared emperor in opposition to Florianus.
  • Florianus moved against him but was killed in September 276, after a reign of only 88 days.
  • Probus was a native of Sirmium near the Danube frontier, aged about 44 with a reputation as an army commander.
  • There was widespread destruction of Gaul and the Rhineland by Franks, Vandals and Burgundians. Between 277-278, Probus restored order here.
  • In 279 he defeated the Getae on the Lower Danube.
  • He moved to Asia Minor, where bandits led by Lydius the Isaurian were terrorising Pamphylia and Lycia. Lydius was killed in the fighting.
  • Next he suppressed a rebellion in Upper Egypt, led by a Nubian people, the Blemmyae.
  • Several insurrections broke out, including Bonosus and Proculus at Cologne in 280, and Saturninus, the governor of Syria.
  • After a lavish triumph at Rome near the end of 281, where hundreds of lions, leopards and bears were killed in the Colosseum, Probus set off for the east to campaign against the Persians.
  • In September 282, Marcus Aurelius Carus, commander of the praetorian guard, had himself proclaimed emperor.
  • Probus's army joined the revolt and they murdered him in a look-out tower where taken refuge, near Sirmium.

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