CAESAR (Caius Julius Caesar) 100-44 BC
- Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC, a member of the prestigious Julian family.
- His uncle by marriage, Gaius Marius, leader of the Populares, appointed the young Caesar flamen dialis, one of an archaic priesthood with no power.
- In 84 BC he married Cornelia, the daughter of Marius's associate, Cinna.
- When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, leader of the Optimates, was made dictator in 82 BC, Caesar was ordered by Sulla to divorce Cornelia. He refused and left Rome, returning in 78 BC, following Sulla's resignation.
- Unable to gain office, he left Rome again and went to Rhodes, where he studied rhetoric, returning in 73 BC, a very persuasive speaker.
- He helped Pompey the Great become Consul for the year 70 BC, along with Crassus.
- In 69 BC Caesar was elected quaestor (magistrate) and in 65 BC curule aedile, in which office he gained much popularity for his lavish gladiatorial games.
- Returning to Rome in 60 BC after a year as governor of Spain, he joined forces with Crassus and Pompey to form the First Triumvirate.
- In 59 BC he was elected consul.
- In 58 BC he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul. For the next seven years he led the campaigns known as the Gallic Wars at the end of which Roman rule was established over central and northern Europe west of the River Rhine.
- Pompey governed Italy, while Crassus governed the East.
- Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC, but didn't subjugate the island.
- Crassus, ever eager for military glory, went to war with Parthia, and was defeated and killed at Carrhae in 53 BC.
- The stage was set for the show-down between Caesar and Pompey. Early in 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon, a small stream separating his province of Cisalpine Gaul from Italy, and moved swiftly southwards. Pompey fled to Brundisium and from there to Greece. Within three months Caesar controlled all Italy.
- Caesar becames "perpetual" dictator. He defeated Pompey at the battle of Pharsalus.
- In Egypt, he installed Cleopatra, daughter of the late King Ptolemy XI, as queen.
- On the Ides (15th) of March 44 BC, when Caesar enterd the Senate house, a group of senators, including Gaius Cassius and Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated him.