Artuqid: Turkmen dynasty that ruled the province of Diyarbakir in northern Iraq (now in southeastern Turkey) through two branches: at Hisn Kayfa and Amid (1098–1232) and at Mardin and Mayyafariqin (1104–1408).
Artuq ibn Ekseb, founder of the dynasty, was rewarded for his services to the Seljuq sultan with the grant of Palestine in 1086. Forced out of Palestine by the Fatimids of Egypt, Artuq's descendant Mu’in ad-Din Sokmen returned to Diyarbakir, where he took Hisn Kayfa (1102), Mardin, and several other northern districts. His brother Najm ad-Din Ilghazi, meanwhile, returned to Seljuq service and was made governor of Iraq by the Seljuq sultan Muhammad. Sent to Diyarbakir in about 1107, Ilghazi displaced one of Sokmen's sons at Mardin (1108); he then made it the capital of his line, leaving Hisn Kayfa to his brother's descendants.
The Artuqids' relations with the Seljuqs thenceforth steadily worsened. Ilghazi organized a Turkmen coalition against the Seljuq governor of Mosul and was able to win control of all Diyarbakir by 1118. The next year he defeated European crusaders who were threatening Aleppo. From 1113 the Artuqids also expanded into the northeast, along the eastern Euphrates.
The rise of the Zangids in Mosul and later in Aleppo during the reigns of Da’ud (c. 1109–44) and his successor, Kara Arslan (1144–67), ended Artuqid expansion. The Artuqids were instead drawn into wars against the crusaders and the Byzantines by the Zangid Nureddin and, at his death in 1174, found themselves Zangid vassals. Their position in Diyarbakir weakened further as Saladin, ruler of Egypt, gradually began to reconquer Nureddin's old kingdom, and by 1186 the Artuqids had submitted to Saladin.
The Artuqids survived in Diyarbakir for two more centuries as vassals of the Seljuqs of Rum and the Khwarezm-Shahs. In 1232 the Artuqid line in Hisn Kayfa was destroyed by the Seljuqs; but the Mardin branch continued under the Mongols until 1408, when it was finally displaced by the Turkmen federation of the Kara Koyunlu.