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Dynasty: Umayyads
Ruler: Hisham
Reigned: AH 105-125 (724 AD - 743 AD)
Denomination: AR Dirhem
Mint: Wasit -on Euphrates W of Basra
Date of Issue: AH 120 =738/9 AD
Obverse: Margin: "In the name of Allah, this dirhem was minted in Wasit in the year twenty and one hundred" (Bismillah)
Centre: "There is no God except |God Alone |He has no equal" (Kalima)
Reverse: Margin: "Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to prevail over all other religions even if the polytheists abhor it." (Sura 9 Verse 33) ("Second Symbol")
Centre: "God is One God |The everlasting Refuge, who has not begotten, and | has not been begotten and never is there | His equal" (Sura 112) This is the Umaidyid symbol.
Reference: Album 137
Weight: 2.9 gms
Diameter: 28.2 mm


  • The Umayyad Dynasty was the first great Muslim dynasty to rule the Empire of the Caliphate (AD 661-750).
  • The Umayyads, under Abu Sufyan, were a merchant family of the Quraysh tribe at Mecca. After initially resisting Islam, they converted in 627, and became prominent administrators under Muhammad and his immediate successors.
  • Following the murder of 'Uthman, the third caliph (644-656), Abu Sufyan's son Mu'awiyah, then governor of Syria, was victorious over 'Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law and fourth caliph, establishing himself as the first Umayyad caliph.
  • Mu'awiyah I (661-680), with the help of his army, ruled as Caliph from Damascus.
  • Under him, Muslim rule expanded to Khorasan, and operations begun into Central Asia and northwestern India, and the conquest of north Africa started.
  • A new fleet of ships conducted a series of unsuccessful campaigns against Constantinople (669-678).
  • Civil war and the deaths of Yazid I in 683 and Mu'awiyah II in 684 ended the Sufyanid branch of the dynasty, when Marwan I was proclaimed caliph.
  • Under 'Abd al-Malik (685-705), the Umayyad caliphate reached its zenith. Muslim armies overran most of Spain and conquered Mukran and Sind in India, and in Central Asia, took Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarezm, Fergana, and Tashkent.
  • Arabic became the official language.
  • The Syrian army suffered defeat by the Byzantine Leo III, the Isaurian in 717.
  • The fiscal reforms of 'Umar II (717-720), intended to placate the non-Arab Muslims, led to a financial crisis.
  • Under Hisham (724-743), the empire was reached it's limits. The Muslim advance into France was halted at Poitiers in 732 and Arab forces in Anatolia were defeated in 740.
  • After revolts in Syria, Iraq, and Khorasan (745-746), the Hashimiyah proclaimed Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah as caliph (749), who became the first of the 'Abbasid dynasty.
  • The last Umayyad, Marwan II (744-750), was defeated at the Battle of the Great Zab River in 750. Members of the Umayyad family were killed, except 'Abd ar-Rahman, who escaped and established himself as a ruler in Spain (756), founding a new Umayyad dynasty there.

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