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Area: Mughal Empire
Ruler: Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur
Reigned: 1526 - 1530
Denomination: AR Tanka
Mint: Kabul
Obverse: Persian Script?
Reverse: Persian Script?
Weight: 4.6 gms
Diameter: 24.1 mm
Comment: Technically, the Mughal period in India commenced in 1526 AD when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi.


The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turks from Uzbekistan, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal in the east to Kabul & Sindh in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south.

The name Mughal is derived from the original homelands of the Timurids, the Central Asian steppes once conquered by Genghis Khan and hence known as Moghulistan, "Land of Mongols". Although early Mughals spoke the Chagatai language and maintained some Turko-Mongol practices, they became essentially Persianized and transferred the Persian literary and high culture to India, thus forming the base for the Indo-Persian culture and the spread of Islam in South Asia.

Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur,a Chagatai Turk descendended from Timur-Lang (Tamerlane) and Ghengis Khan, acquired Kabulistan in 1504, and decided to regain the territories in Hindustan held once by Turks. He started his exploratory raids in September 1519 when he visited the Indo-Afghan borders to suppress the rising by Yusufzai tribes. He undertook similar raids up to 1524 and had established his base camp at Peshawar. Finally in 1526 in his fifth attempt, Babur defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat. To secure his newly founded kingdom, Babur then had to face the formidable Indian king Rana Sanga of Chittor, at the Battle of Khanwa. Rana Sanga offered stiff resistance but was defeated. His son Humayun succeeded him in 1530

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