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Ruler: India - Delhi
Reigned: Muhammad II
Reigned: 1296 - 1315
Denomination: AR Tanka
Obverse: "al-sultan al-a'zam 'ala al-dunya wa'l din abu'l muzaffar muhammad shah al-sultan" (rulers titles)
Reverse: "sikandar al-thani yamin al-khilafa nasir amir al-mu'minin" (Second Alexander legend; Mint and date)
Reference: M2540
Weight: 11 gms
Diameter: 27.2 mm
Comment: Ala-ud-din Muhammad changed the classical coinage style of his predecessor and called himself as "The second Alexander, the right hand of the Khalifate".

Delhi - Muhammad II

The conquest of India and the establishment of Turkish rule changed India by destroying Buddhism and introducing the Muslim religion. Sultan Muhammad of Ghur and his slave lieutenant Qutb-ud-din Aybak led their first raid in 1175 and then eventually conquered Delhi in 1193, which became the first capital under Turkish rule. In 1206 Ghur was assassinated and so Aybak became his successor. Because Ghur was his master and he was still regarded as a slave, Aybak legitimised his rule by arranging several marriages of influential figures. So began the first Turkish dynasty known as the Slave Dynasty (1206-90).

The second dynasty was instituted by Jalaluddin Firoz Khalji, who ascended the throne at the age of seventy and established Khalji dynasty.

Before his reign, Jalal-ud-din had won many battles, but he was against shedding the blood of any muslims for political or territorial gains. He made Ala-ud-din (Muhammad II to be) the governor of Avadh in addition to Kara. However, Ala-ud-din had heard of the wealth of the Deccan and attacked it with a huge army, defeating Raja Ramchandra of Devagiri. When his father-in-law, Jalal-ud-din, had gone to receive and greet Ala-ud-din on his victory of Deccan, Ala-ud-din put a spear through his head, claiming the throne of Delhi (1296).

As Muhammad II, Ala-ud-din succeeded in repulsing attacks from the Mongols. In 1297-1298 he acquired Gujarat, Somanath and Surath. Under his command, General Malik-Kafur invaded Deccan again in 1309 AD bringing in Warangal and Devagiri and in 1310 the entire eastern territory and the Bellal kingdom (Dwarasamudra). Malik Kafur was thus responsible for the conquest of Southern India and within less than ten years he rose to the rank of Naib from slave. The success of Malik Kafur made him so strong that Ala-ud-din became virtually a puppet in his hands and finally brought about his death by poisoning.

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