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Area: Indo-Parthians
Ruler: Gondophares Sases
Reigned: 20-55 AD
Denomination: Billon Tetradrachm
Obverse: King on horseback. "ΒΑΣΙΛΕωC ΒΑCΙΛΕωΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟϒ ϒΝΔΟΦΕΡΡΟϒ"
Reverse: Zeus (Athena?) Kharoshti legend: MAHARAJASA GUDAPHANISA TRATARASA "King Gondophares, the Saviour".
Reference: S 242, MA 2621
Weight: 9.9 gms
Diameter: 21.5 mm


Following the weakening of the Parthian empire after conflicts with Rome and the death of Mithridates II in 92 BC, the Suren, a noble Parthian family of Arsacid descent, started to make inroads into eastern territories that had been occupied by the Indo-Scythians and the Yuezhi, until the demise of the last Indo-Scythian emperor Azes II around 5 AD.

The Parthians ended up controlling all of Bactria and extensive territories in Northern India, after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan Empire ruler Kujula Kadphises,in the Gandhara region.

Around 20 AD, Gondophares, one of the Parthian conquerors, declared his independence from the Parthian empire and established the Indo-Parthian kingdom in the conquered territories.

The kingdom barely lasted one century. It started to fragment under Gondophares' successor Abdagases. The northern Indian part of the kingdom was retaken by the Kushans around 75.

After that point the kingdom was essentially restricted to Afghanistan. The last king Pakores (100 - 135) only ruled Sakastan and Turan.

The Indo-Parthians were known to the Indians as Pahlavas and are refered to in numerous Indian texts, together with the Yavanas or the Sakas. At the beginning of the 2nd century CE, the Central India Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni (r. 106 - 130 AD) would call himself "Destroyer of Sakas (Western Kshatrapas), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians)" in his inscriptions.

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