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|Reigned:||1649 - 1660|
|Date of Issue:||1649|
|Obverse:||Shield with St.George's Cross. "THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND". Mint-mark sun|
|Reverse:||Shield with St.George's Cross on left, Shield with Irish harp on right. "GOD WITH VS. 1649" Above shields "VI"|
|Reference:||Spink 3219, North 2726|
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR
"English Civil War" was the general term for the armed conflict (1642-1649) between King Charles I and his supporters (Cavaliers), and the Parliamentarians (Roundheads), which ultimately led to the Commonwealth.
The immediate cause of the war was Charles's attempt (1637) to impose the Anglican liturgy in Scotland. The Presbyterian Scots rioted, and in February 1638 they signed the Solemn League and Covenant in an attempt to protect the reformed religion. They also raised an army, and in 1640 occupied the northern counties of England.
The Long Parliament, summoned by Charles to raise money in support of his war against the Scots, met on November 3th, 1640, and demanded reforms as the price for aid. The king's chief advisers, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, were impeached and executed for treason. Parliament split over the Root and Branch Bill to abolish bishops in the Anglican church, over raising an army to quell a rebellion in Ireland, and only just managed to pass the Grand Remonstrance, (1641), a printed indictment of the king which would effectively give Parliament control over the choice of his ministers. This political quarrel escalated into armed conflict in 1642.
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