Richard III: 1483 - 1485
Richard was born at Fotheringhay Castle, 2nd October 1452, of Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He married Anne Neville, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker'. They had one son, Edward (died 1484), but he had several illegitimate children.
A loyal and - as Duke of Gloucester and married to a Neville - powerful supporter of his brother, Edward IV, Richard served effectively in the Borders, recapturing Berwick from the Scots. On Edward's death, he ruthlessly suppressed the Woodvilles, forcing the widowed Elizabeth to take sanctuary at Westminster, and secured the Crown for himself He antagonized many Yorkists, including the Earl of Buckingham (executed, with other opponents, without trial in 1483). Confronted by the Lancastrian invasion force of Henry Tudor at Bosworth, and deserted at the last minute by Lord Stanley with 7000 men, he was defeated and killed (Bosworth, Leicestershire, 22nd August 1485).
He was buried at Greyfriars Abbey, Leicester; later disinterred and desecrated.
Richard's reputation suffered through Tudor propaganda, aided by Shakespeare. In spite of his nickname, 'Crouchback', Richard's disability seems to have been no more than a minor irregularity of the shoulder.