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Dynasty: Plantagenets
Ruler: Edward III
Reigned: 1327 - 1377
Denomination: AV Pre-treaty Noble
Mint/Moneyer: London
Date of Issue: 1356-1361 Pre-treaty
Obverse: King standing facing in ship with sword and shield. "EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB"
Reverse: Royal cross in tressure, small 'e' at centre. "+IhC AVTEM TRANCIENS P MEDIUM ILLORVM IBAT"
Reference: Spink 1486, North 1144
Weight: 7.63 gms
Diameter: 32.5 mm
Comment: Gold Noble was worth 6s 8d (80 silver pennies)
Weight of 7.63 grams = 117.75 grains, which is 2.75 grains short of the official weight of 120 grains. Reverse incription is from the Bible: 'But Jesus, passing through the midst of them, went His way'.

EDWARD III

Edward was born on 13th November 1312 at Windsor Castle. His parents were Edward II and Isabella of France. He ascended the Throne on 25th January 1327.

Edward was a warrior-king like his grandfather, Edward I. In spite of heavy taxation to fund war, he developed into a genial, pragmatic and popular monarch, but his determination to re-establish the greatness of his dynasty led the Crown into the long pursuit of a futile goal - the throne of France. Edward's claim through his mother was not recognized in France. England became embroiled in the so-called Hundred Years' War - actually a series of wars from 1337 to 1453. Naval victory at Sluys (1340) gave England control of the Channel and 1340 Edward assumed the title of King of France, which was maintained by his successors until 1801. The English were victorious at Crecy (1346) Poitiers (1356), where they were led by Edward's eldest son, the Black Prince (1330-1376). However, the only permanent gain from Edward's French wars was Calais.

In 1348-50 about one-third of the population of England died of bubonic plague in the Black Death.

Certain English institutions took recognizable form during Edward III's reign. Parliament was divided into two houses, and the procedure of impeachment was used against corrupt or incompetent ministers. Edward founded the Order of the Garter (1348), justices of the peace acquired more formal status, and English gradually replaced French as the 'official' language.

Edward married Philippa, daughter of the Count of Hainault and they had eight sons, including Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt, and five daughters. Edward died at Sheen Palace, Surrey, 21st June 1377 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

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